National Urban League President Marc Morial Congratulates the First Black Federal Reserve Appointee

Morial

The National Urban League has long fought to diversify the Federal Reserve System. In 2014, the National Urban League submitted public comments related to the implementation of Section 342 of Dodd-Frank, which created the Offices of Minority and Women Inclusion (OMWIs). The OMWIs were established to increase diversity and inclusion in the financial services industry, including the Federal Reserve, which has a poor track record for hiring and contracting with women and people of color.

In 2016, National Urban League President and CEO Marc H. Morial, along with a group of economists, met with Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen and three Federal Reserve Board Governors to specifically discuss the importance of diversity. Morial also recently met with a Governor at the Federal Reserve Board to discuss the vacancy in Atlanta and encourage diversity in their hiring process.

On March 14, 2017, Morial congratulated Raphael Bostic for being selected as the President of the Atlanta Federal Reserve, making him the first African American and person of color to assume this important role.

“Bias still exists, both overtly and covertly, particularly when it comes to high-level positions in finance. I think what Mr. Bostic’s appointment underscores is the great reservoir of talent in the African American community for positions like this. Our campaign with the Federal Reserve, for a number of years, raised this issue, [including] with Federal Reserve Chairman Janet Yellen about a year ago. She was very responsive in acknowledging that they need to do better,” says Morial.

As president of the Atlanta Federal Reserve, Bostic will lead 1,700 regional employees and represent the institution before its core constituencies, including member banks, business leaders, community organizations, consumers, and the broader public. In addition, he will sit on the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), which helps determine many important monetary policy issues, such as whether or not to increase interest rates.

“In the Federal Reserve’s 100-year history, an African American has never served as president until now,” Morial says. “After years of personally advocating for greater diversity in the Federal Reserve System, I am pleased to see that some progress. Although, not enough is being made. The work for equal opportunity is far from done. […] We are not going to be satisfied with Mr. Bostic’s appointment. Anyone with a platform needs to very loud and assertive about the fact that we have not yet achieved inclusion and diversity to the extent necessary in this country,” he says.

The National Urban League applauds Raphael Bostic, one of this nation’s preeminent economic scholars, for this historic achievement, stating, “We look forward to continuing our work to ensure qualified women and people of color, like Bostic, have equal opportunities throughout the Federal Reserve system.”

Against All Odds Looks at the Fragility of the Black Middle Class

black middle class

I don’t usually stay up late to watch TV, but last night, at my husband’s suggestion, we watched the journalist Bob Herbert’s documentary Against All Odds. The film draws a straight line between the persistent discrimination most African Americans historically experienced and the low wealth in the black community today—despite there being millions of black Americans in the middle class.

 

‘A Servant Class’

 

Although in my work at Black Enterprise I already knew about the stark racial disparities in wealth and know much about this country’s painful history of racial hatred, Herbert’s documentary is compelling viewing. It clearly shows how policies were intentionally and systematically structured to keep black Americans in a prescribed low caste.

Marc Morial, president of the National Urban League, describes in the film how only menial jobs were open to most black people, and how culture and custom worked to relegate them to a “servant class.”

Although Herbert’s film examines the historical basis for low black wealth, it also looks at contemporary politics, and how no politician would today say “nigger, nigger, nigger” as a way of connecting to his base. Today, that reprehensible language is instead rendered as “tax cuts,” according to infamous words uttered by Lee Atwater, a political strategist and adviser to Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush.

Herbert also notes how black people with incomes that qualified them for conventional mortgages were steered into the subprime market, losing much of their wealth in the Great Recession. In other words, economic discrimination is a current event, not just history, for black Americans.

 

Legal Stealing

 

The two pillars of middle-class life are employment and housing, Herbert says in the film. On both fronts, black people were systematically excluded.

Jack Macnamara, a Jesuit priest and activist who researched the contract selling of homes to black homeowners in Chicago in the 1960s (they bought “on contract” because they could not get mortgages) says in the film that “$500 million was legally stolen from the black community in Chicago alone during the period from 1940 to 1970.”

Beryl Satter, author of Family Properties: How the Struggle Over Race and Real Estate Transformed Chicago and Urban America, notes how whites and blacks both wanted the same thing: to save money and buy and invest in property.

She says whites “were rewarded with property appreciation and a sense of stability,” but blacks were punished. By pursuing the very goals that should have helped them to establish an economic foundation, they were lured into a “trap that ended up draining them of wealth instead of helping them to build wealth,” Satter says.

Watch Against All Odds here. It is heartbreaking, but it will make you think.

Wells Fargo Commits $60 Billion to Increase African American Homeownership

homeownership

Wells Fargo has announced a $60 billion lending commitment, to create at least 250,000 new African American homeowners, in an effort to address the lower homeownership rates in the black community. The banking and financial services holding company seeks to lend $60 billion to qualified African American consumers for home purchases by 2027, as well as to increase the diversity of the Wells Fargo Home Lending sales team, with $15 million to support a variety of initiatives that promote financial education and counseling over the next ten years.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, by the year 2024, 75% of the expected 14 million new households (renters and owners) in the U.S. will be diverse. African Americans are projected to represent 17%, or the third largest segment, of the new households.

 

Boosting Black Homeownership

 

“Wells Fargo’s $60 billion lending goal can contribute to economic growth by making responsible homeownership possible for more African Americans in communities across the country,” says Brad Blackwell, executive vice president and head of housing policy and homeownership growth strategies for Wells Fargo, in a press statement. “We are proud to be the first mortgage lender to make a public commitment to help increase African American homeownership. And, we are grateful for the support of key housing and civil rights organizations, who work alongside us to increase economic prosperity in our communities.”

Joining Wells Fargo in this effort in the National Association of Real Estate Brokers (NAREB). Composed of African American real estate professionals, the organization has set a homeownership goal, along with two of the nation’s most influential civil rights organizations, the NAACP and the National Urban League (NUL).

The NUL provides homebuyer education and counseling through its network of affiliate offices across the country. “Homeownership has become an indispensable part of being a full participant in American society,” says National Urban League President and CEO Marc H. Morial, in a released statement. “An erosion of homeownership rates among African Americans represents not only a devastating financial loss, but a barrier to full participation in the American dream.”

 

Removing Barriers to Wealth Building

 

NAREB gave kudos to Wells Fargo’s $60 billion loan commitment. “The bank is the first financial institution to acknowledge publicly black Americans’ wealth building potential, which could be greatly improved through homeownership,” says Ron Cooper, president of the National Association of Real Estate Brokers, in a statement.“NAREB welcomes their entry into the struggle to close the ever widening wealth gap for black Americans, and looks forward to having Wells Fargo as a partner in NAREB’s ‘Two Million New Black Homeowners in Five Years’ program.”

According to NAREB’s 2016 commissioned study, The State of Housing in Black America, housing finance industry barriers, such as credit-scoring models, the lack of affordable housing inventory, and economic constraints, like unemployment and under employment, contributes to low homeownership among African Americans. In addition, barriers to homeownership in black communities include the costs associated with accessing mortgage credit, limited funds for downpayments, and lender averseness to extending credit to consumers with lower credit scores and smaller downpayments. Additional research concludes that the lack of exposure to generations of long-term homeownership and the persistence of myths about homebuying may keep future homebuyers on the fence.

 

Home Financing Options

 

Despite these factors, Wells Fargo has learned, through a series of consumer surveys with Ipsos Public Affairs, that African Americans view homeownership positively. The 2016 survey reveals 86% of all Americans say homeownership is a “dream come true”;  with 79% of the African Americans surveyed saying it’s essential for building families, and 51% considering buying a home in two years.

Wells Fargo offers a number of home financing options, including its Your First Mortgage, a homebuyer education incentive that offers a downpayment as low as 3% for fixed-rate loans. For veterans, a VA loan requires no downpayment. Moreover, Wells Fargo is the exclusive provider of the Union Plus mortgage program, which offers benefits for most union members and their families. The Neighborhood LIFT program offers down payment assistance to low- and moderate-income homebuyers.

Wells Fargo Commits $60 Billion to Increase African American Homeownership

homeownership

Wells Fargo has announced a $60 billion lending commitment, to create at least 250,000 new African American homeowners, in an effort to address the lower homeownership rates in the black community. The banking and financial services holding company seeks to lend $60 billion to qualified African American consumers for home purchases by 2027, as well as to increase the diversity of the Wells Fargo Home Lending sales team, with $15 million to support a variety of initiatives that promote financial education and counseling over the next ten years.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, by the year 2024, 75% of the expected 14 million new households (renters and owners) in the U.S. will be diverse. African Americans are projected to represent 17%, or the third largest segment, of the new households.

 

Boosting Black Homeownership

 

“Wells Fargo’s $60 billion lending goal can contribute to economic growth by making responsible homeownership possible for more African Americans in communities across the country,” says Brad Blackwell, executive vice president and head of housing policy and homeownership growth strategies for Wells Fargo, in a press statement. “We are proud to be the first mortgage lender to make a public commitment to help increase African American homeownership. And, we are grateful for the support of key housing and civil rights organizations, who work alongside us to increase economic prosperity in our communities.”

Joining Wells Fargo in this effort in the National Association of Real Estate Brokers (NAREB). Composed of African American real estate professionals, the organization has set a homeownership goal, along with two of the nation’s most influential civil rights organizations, the NAACP and the National Urban League (NUL).

The NUL provides homebuyer education and counseling through its network of affiliate offices across the country. “Homeownership has become an indispensable part of being a full participant in American society,” says National Urban League President and CEO Marc H. Morial, in a released statement. “An erosion of homeownership rates among African Americans represents not only a devastating financial loss, but a barrier to full participation in the American dream.”

 

Removing Barriers to Wealth Building

 

NAREB gave kudos to Wells Fargo’s $60 billion loan commitment. “The bank is the first financial institution to acknowledge publicly black Americans’ wealth building potential, which could be greatly improved through homeownership,” says Ron Cooper, president of the National Association of Real Estate Brokers, in a statement.“NAREB welcomes their entry into the struggle to close the ever widening wealth gap for black Americans, and looks forward to having Wells Fargo as a partner in NAREB’s ‘Two Million New Black Homeowners in Five Years’ program.”

According to NAREB’s 2016 commissioned study, The State of Housing in Black America, housing finance industry barriers, such as credit-scoring models, the lack of affordable housing inventory, and economic constraints, like unemployment and under employment, contributes to low homeownership among African Americans. In addition, barriers to homeownership in black communities include the costs associated with accessing mortgage credit, limited funds for downpayments, and lender averseness to extending credit to consumers with lower credit scores and smaller downpayments. Additional research concludes that the lack of exposure to generations of long-term homeownership and the persistence of myths about homebuying may keep future homebuyers on the fence.

 

Home Financing Options

 

Despite these factors, Wells Fargo has learned, through a series of consumer surveys with Ipsos Public Affairs, that African Americans view homeownership positively. The 2016 survey reveals 86% of all Americans say homeownership is a “dream come true”;  with 79% of the African Americans surveyed saying it’s essential for building families, and 51% considering buying a home in two years.

Wells Fargo offers a number of home financing options, including its Your First Mortgage, a homebuyer education incentive that offers a downpayment as low as 3% for fixed-rate loans. For veterans, a VA loan requires no downpayment. Moreover, Wells Fargo is the exclusive provider of the Union Plus mortgage program, which offers benefits for most union members and their families. The Neighborhood LIFT program offers down payment assistance to low- and moderate-income homebuyers.

The U.S. Senate Has a Diversity Problem in Its Staff

Senate

As policy decisions affecting all Americans are debated in the halls of Congress, you will be hard pressed to find people of color in top‐level staff positions. A report released by the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies found that the most influential Senate staffers are disproportionately white. Among senior-level Senate staff—chiefs of staff, legislative directors, and other folks, who ultimately shape the laws we all live by—a mere 7.1% are people of color, researchers found, although people of color make up 36% of the U.S. population.

When it comes to numbers for African Americans, the findings are even more alarming; there is only one African American Chief of Staff out of 100. There is only one African American legislative director out of 100. There is only one African American communications director out of 100. Most troubling is the fact that out of the three African American senior staffers just mentioned, only one works for a Democratic senator.

 

Halls of Congress Lack Color

 

The lack of diversity is especially pronounced at the senior level. There are 100 Senators, each has three senior positions in their personal offices: Chief of Staff, Legislative Director, and Communications Director. Those three positions, unlike any others, assist in the management of the Senator’s office and Senate legislative agenda, shape the $3.8 trillion U.S. federal budget, provide oversight of federal agencies and hire, manage, mentor and promote junior Senate staff. These influential top aides advise the senators on all issues and their recommendations are usually carried out.

“On issues like education, the economy, healthcare, and decisions of war and peace, members of Congress are legislating without the perspectives of black and brown staff,” wrote Marc Morial, president and CEO of the National Urban League (NUL). “Members of Congress have exempted themselves from most labor laws like the Equal Employment Act of 1972 and the 1964 Civil Rights Act. As a result, there is no legal requirement for Senators to provide answers to anyone when it comes to the employees they hire for their personal staffs and/or committee assignments,” he states.

 

Holding Congress Accountable In Hiring

 

Morial also points out that the Senate doesn’t have to follow the federal Freedom of Information Act, which gives citizens access to information about their government. So, citizens and groups like NUL can’t get access to Congressional employment figures, even though we can get such numbers from companies that receive federal contracts.

Among NUL’s proposed solutions is that Congress must enact legislation or rules subjecting it to employment laws, which require reporting of employment demographics and once vacancies are announced, fair interview processes must be established employing the National Football League’s “Rooney Rule.”The Rooney Rule is the NFL’s policy that requires league teams to interview minority candidates for head coaching and senior football operation jobs.

This New Fund Was Created To Help Black Entrepreneurs

loan fund

A small business lending program has been launched to help African American and minority businesses create jobs and build community wealth. With a focus on bringing capital to underserved groups, the National Urban League’s Urban Empowerment Fund, Morgan Stanley, National Development Council, and Cuyahoga County have come together to offer the Capital Access Fund of Greater Cleveland (CAF).

CAF is a three-year program that provides minority business owners access to capital, offering 50 loans totaling $8 million, as well as pre- and post-loan counseling, to ensure the success of those small business borrowers. With a goal of creating or maintaining a minimum of 300 jobs within those three years, CAF already has completed eight loans, totaling $1.4 million and helping to create or maintain 70 local jobs.

“The level of interest we already have confirms what we already knew—there is a gap in the access to capital for minority businesses, and we should not gloss over that,” said Marc H. Morial, president and CEO of the National Urban League, in a released statement.

Improving Small Business Lending

 

Ultimately, the goal is to change small lending opportunities in other cities around the country, ensuring African American and other minority-owned small businesses secure access to much needed capital.

Don Bowen, who leads the Urban League Empowerment Fund, said the CAF “allows the National Urban League to build upon its legacy role, as a social service intermediary to become a financial intermediary. It’s another tool to help impact local communities and advance the mission of promoting economic parity.”

The Community Impact Loan Fund is a new NDC product established in partnership with $2 million in startup capital from Morgan Stanley, to support minority small business owners. The Grown Cuyahoga Fund is supported with $2.5 million from Cuyahoga County.

“We are proud to partner on this program, with $2 million in startup capital for the Community Impact Loan Fund,” added Carla A. Harris, vice chairman of Global Wealth Management and head of the Multicultural Client Strategy Group at Morgan Stanley, in released statement. “By providing small businesses with access to capital and flexible terms that lead to opportunities for these businesses to scale up,  affords them the financial stability necessary for entrepreneurs to focus on their customers and contribute jobs to the local economy.”

Local Funders’ Long-Term Commitments

 

In addition to Cuyahoga County, Key Bank Foundation has made a long-term commitment to CAF, and is the lead local funder. Other local funders include City of Cleveland, Burton D. Morgan Foundation, PNC Bank, and Fifth Third Bank.

“We are proud of our local funders, who have met the challenge to support a program that offers a long term, sustainable solution for local African American and other minority entrepreneurs when pursing capital,” noted Marsha Mockabee, president of the Urban League of Greater Cleveland.

Coach Students to Unlock Their Potential

potential

Do you have a personal life coach? I don’t, but coaching is reportedly quite effective.

Last year I attended the National Urban League’s National Higher Education Summit, sponsored by USA Funds. All the panels were inspiring and hard hitting, but a speaker from InsideTrack, a company that supports student persistence, was particularly enlightening.

Coaching Students to Success

InsideTrack takes the concept of executive coaching and applies it to college students.

“We want to help students develop a plan that would fully empower them and hold them accountable,” says Dave Jarrat, the company’s vice president of marketing.

Why does coaching help students persist? Jarrat says the biggest barrier is often lacking a sense of self-awareness, a sense of belonging, students wondering if they’re college material, not knowing how to connect to the school community or to professors.

Most students go through a period of uncertainty, Jarrat says. The coaching helps to normalize it.

“We help them develop a plan—we don’t hand them fish, we teach them to fish,” Jarrat says. “We’ve coached 1.3 million students and seen 10% to 15% gains in enrollment, persistence, and completion.”

Depending on the school, the coaching can be a combination of face-to-face interactions, video conferencing, text messaging, or mobile apps, Jarrat says.

“Our ultimate goal is to help them succeed in life. We want them to develop their own plan by identifying and achieving their goals.”

A Student’s Perspective

Maybe that’s why when I spoke with Kyren Winfrey, a sophomore at Ivy Tech Community College in Indianapolis, he sounded so confident and directed.

Winfrey started school knowing that he wanted to pursue firefighting as a career. He is already volunteering at community service events and with a volunteer fire department where he gets training and hands-on experience.

“I’m a homeland security-public safety major,” Winfrey told me. “My goal is to be a firefighter-paramedic.”

Ivy Tech assigned Winfrey an InsideTrack coach his freshman year. Although they met once in person, all the coaching took place by text, phone, or e-mail. Winfrey says the coaching was important to him.

“We went into depth talking about how I could improve. We talked through any problems and looked for concrete solutions. If she couldn’t help me, she would point me in the right direction.”

Winfrey says he’s now a stronger student and “I know how my school works.” Having the extra support and help in figuring out what works best were most helpful, he says.

For more about InsideTrack, watch the video below or go to its website.

 

Coach Students to Unlock Their Potential

potential

Do you have a personal life coach? I don’t, but coaching is reportedly quite effective.

Last year I attended the National Urban League’s National Higher Education Summit, sponsored by USA Funds. All the panels were inspiring and hard hitting, but a speaker from InsideTrack, a company that supports student persistence, was particularly enlightening.

Coaching Students to Success

InsideTrack takes the concept of executive coaching and applies it to college students.

“We want to help students develop a plan that would fully empower them and hold them accountable,” says Dave Jarrat, the company’s vice president of marketing.

Why does coaching help students persist? Jarrat says the biggest barrier is often lacking a sense of self-awareness, a sense of belonging, students wondering if they’re college material, not knowing how to connect to the school community or to professors.

Most students go through a period of uncertainty, Jarrat says. The coaching helps to normalize it.

“We help them develop a plan—we don’t hand them fish, we teach them to fish,” Jarrat says. “We’ve coached 1.3 million students and seen 10% to 15% gains in enrollment, persistence, and completion.”

Depending on the school, the coaching can be a combination of face-to-face interactions, video conferencing, text messaging, or mobile apps, Jarrat says.

“Our ultimate goal is to help them succeed in life. We want them to develop their own plan by identifying and achieving their goals.”

A Student’s Perspective

Maybe that’s why when I spoke with Kyren Winfrey, a sophomore at Ivy Tech Community College in Indianapolis, he sounded so confident and directed.

Winfrey started school knowing that he wanted to pursue firefighting as a career. He is already volunteering at community service events and with a volunteer fire department where he gets training and hands-on experience.

“I’m a homeland security-public safety major,” Winfrey told me. “My goal is to be a firefighter-paramedic.”

Ivy Tech assigned Winfrey an InsideTrack coach his freshman year. Although they met once in person, all the coaching took place by text, phone, or e-mail. Winfrey says the coaching was important to him.

“We went into depth talking about how I could improve. We talked through any problems and looked for concrete solutions. If she couldn’t help me, she would point me in the right direction.”

Winfrey says he’s now a stronger student and “I know how my school works.” Having the extra support and help in figuring out what works best were most helpful, he says.

For more about InsideTrack, watch the video below or go to its website.

 

National Urban League: Save Our Cities

national urban league

During the first week of August, political, business, and community leaders met in Baltimore for the 2016 National Urban League Conference titled “Save Our Cities: Education, Jobs + Justice.”

The National Urban League Conference, presented by Toyota and Nationwide, occupies a singular echelon in America’s cultural and political discourse. The nation’s largest civil rights and social justice conference attracts thousands of the nation’s most influential community leaders together with top policy-makers, academicians, business leaders, and artists for four days of dynamic dialogue, intellectual exchange, and community service.

The conference featured family-focused Community Day for the local Baltimoreans, which included entertaining exhibits and sessions. In addition to the exciting exhibits in the N.U.L. Experience, the Expo Hall included free health and wellness screenings, workshops, forums and panel discussions focused on job creation, education, health, housing, and civic engagement.

At the Small Business Matters: Entrepreneurs Summit, which is focused on the theme “money, marketing, and management,” small business owners and those hoping to start businesses also had the opportunity to compete in the National Urban League Conference Pitch Contest.

To learn more about the National Urban League, please visit www.iamempowered.com

Hillary Clinton Stands on the Shoulders of Shirley Chisholm

Shirley Chisholm

This article is labeled for permission to be reused from the National Urban League.

To Be Equal #27

August 17, 2016

HILLARY CLINTON STANDS ON THE SHOULDERS OF SHIRLEY CHISHOLM

Marc H. Morial

President and CEO

National Urban League

“Women in this country must become revolutionaries. We must refuse to accept the old, the traditional roles and stereotypes…We must replace the old, negative thoughts about our femininity with positive thoughts and positive action affirming it, and more. But we must also remember that we will be breaking with tradition, and so we must prepare ourselves educationally, economically, and psychologically in order that we will be able to accept and bear with the sanctions that society will immediately impose upon us.”    – Shirley Chisholm

The nation has marked the historic occasion of the first woman in American history to win the Presidential nomination for a major political party.

While Hillary Clinton has come further than any female presidential candidate, she is not the first. Victoria Woodhull ran as the candidate for the Equal Rights Party in 1872. Margaret Chase Smith challenged Barry Goldwater for the Republican nomination in 1964. More recently, Pat Schroeder in 1988 and Carol Moseley Braun in 2004 vied for the Democratic nomination.

But the most historically significant forerunner to Hillary Clinton was Shirley Chisholm, the Brooklyn-born trailblazer who was also the nation’s first African American congresswoman.

The daughter of working-class immigrants from the Caribbean, Chisholm became interested in politics while serving as the director of a child day care center and an educational consultant for the New York City Division of Day Care.  She served three years on the New York State Assembly, before running for Congress in 1968 with the slogan “Unbought and unbossed”.

“My greatest political asset,” Chisholm said, “which professional politicians fear, is my mouth, out of which comes all kinds of things one shouldn’t always discuss for reasons of political expediency.”

Chisholm hired only women for her staff, half of whom were African Americans. “Of my two handicaps, being female put many more obstacles in my path than being black,” she said.

She announced her candidacy for president at a Baptist church in Brooklyn. In an article about her candidacy, the Associated Press wrote, “Ironically, her major headache seems to come from black politicians.”

“They think that I am trying to take power away from them,” she said. “The black man must step forward. But that doesn’t mean the black woman must step back. While they’re rapping and snapping, I’m mapping,” she said.

She competed in 14 states, winning 28 delegates to the convention. As a symbolic gesture, candidate Hubert Humphrey released his 83 black delegates to cast their votes for Chisholm.  With the votes of several other delegates at that contentious convention, Chisolm finished fourth in a field of 13, with 152 delegates.

It is hard to imagine, in this era of sharp division in politics, the remarkable moment during that campaign when she visited her segregationist rival, Alabama Governor George Wallace, in his hospital room after he was shot and wounded. “What are your people going to say?” he asked her. “I know what they are going to say,” she said. “But I wouldn’t want what happened to you to happen to anyone.”  She recalled that her words moved him to tears.

Chisholm retired from Congress in 1982 and remained an outspoken activist for civil rights until her death in 2005.

It would be difficult to overestimate the impact and influence of Chisholm’s congressional service and presidential candidacy. While Congress remains disproportionately white and male, one-in-five members of the current House and Senate are a racial or ethnic minority, making the 114th Congress the most diverse in history.  The nation’s first African American president is winding up his second term, and a woman– a former senator and Secretary of State–has just won the Democratic nomination for president.

In her acclaimed speech on the Equal Rights Amendment in 1970, Chisholm said, “The Constitution they wrote was designed to protect the rights of white, male citizens. As there were no black founding fathers, there were no founding mothers–a great pity, on both counts. It is not too late to complete the work they left undone. Today, here, we should start to do so.”

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27TBE 8/17/16 ▪ 120 Wall Street ▪ New York, NY 10005 ▪ (212) 558-5300 ▪ WWW.NUL.ORG